In his lecture, Enrico Ferri compares and contrasts the "classical criminal school", starting with Beccariawith the "positive school", starting with Lombroso and Garofalo. The classical school used an "a priori" method il metodo aprioristico of abstract reasoning to relate the offence to the penalty. It did not deal with the real offender as such.
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Abstract Despite increasing emphasis on the potential of dietary antioxidants in preventing memory loss and on diet as a precursor of neurological health, rigorous studies investigating the cognitive effects of foods and their components are rare. Recent animal studies have reported memory and other cognitive benefits of polyphenols, found abundantly in pomegranate juice.
We performed a preliminary, placebo-controlled randomized trial of pomegranate juice in older subjects with age-associated memory complaints using memory testing and functional brain activation fMRI as outcome measures.
Thirty-two subjects 28 completers were randomly assigned to drink 8 ounces of either pomegranate juice or a flavor-matched placebo drink for 4 weeks.
Subjects received memory testing, fMRI scans during cognitive tasks, and blood draws for peripheral biomarkers before and after the intervention. Investigators and subjects were all blind to group membership. After 4 weeks, only the pomegranate group showed a significant improvement in the Buschke selective reminding test of verbal memory and a significant increase in plasma trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity TEAC and urolithin A-glucuronide.
Furthermore, compared to the placebo group, the pomegranate group had increased fMRI activity during verbal and visual memory tasks. While preliminary, these results suggest a role for pomegranate juice in augmenting memory function through task-related increases in functional brain activity.
Introduction As people age, their risk for cognitive decline increases. While genetic factors play an important role in age-related memory decline, such nongenetic lifestyle factors as diet and exercise contribute as well [ 4 ].
Previously, we found that pomegranate juice has the highest antioxidant capacity among fruit juices using five different in vitro antioxidant assays [ 28 ].
In comparison, apple juice, which is low in antioxidant capacity, was less effective than pomegranate juice in affecting antioxidant capacity based on FRAP assays in 26 elderly subjects consuming pomegranate juice or apple juice over a 4-week period [ 29 ]. Overexpression of antioxidant enzymes or supplementation of some antioxidants appears effective in extending the life span in several animal models [ 56 ], and a few studies have specifically found memory-enhancing effects of polyphenols in mice [ 3031 ].
However, evidence for memory enhancement from polyphenols in human-controlled trials is limited. One preliminary study [ 15 ] found beneficial effects of grape juice on memory in five older adults with age-associated memory impairment compared to seven placebo controls; to our knowledge this small study is the only placebo-controlled human trial of polyphenols that assessed memory change.
Therefore, more well-controlled studies are needed to determine potential beneficial effects of antioxidants that occur naturally in various food sources and to elucidate the possible underlying mechanisms. Moreover, studies that examine possible brain mechanisms of polyphenol treatment in humans are limited.
One potential method for identifying mechanisms of recovery in drug trials is functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI.
Further, fMRI has proven to be sensitive in measuring changes in neural activation patterns among older subjects in response to memory-enhancing drugs, such as donepezil [ 41 ] and memantine [ 42 ], with results showing increased activation or restoration of resting-state brain networks following treatment.
One investigation used fMRI to examine the effects of antioxidants flavonoids in young healthy controls and demonstrated increased fMRI activity to cognitive challenge with flavonoid administration [ 43 ]; however, no studies to date have examined fMRI effects of antioxidant therapy in older adults with or without memory complaints.
To address this knowledge gap, we explored potential neuroprotective effects derived from polyphenols in pomegranate juice in older volunteers with mild memory complaints in a placebo-controlled, randomized, and double-blind trial and measured three aspects: We hypothesized that pomegranate juice compared to placebo would increase metabolites, improve memory, and increase task-related brain activation in the left and right hemispheres for verbal and nonverbal memory tasks, respectively.
Together these metrics provide preliminary evidence of bioavailability, clinical efficacy, and brain mechanisms of pomegranate juice in older adults with memory complaints. Subjects Thirty-two volunteers were initially enrolled into the study out of 39 who were screened; of these, 28 completed the clinical trial Table 1.
Subjects were recruited via advertisements through local newspapers, flyers, posters, lectures, and word-of-mouth. We specifically recruited nondemented, older right-handed subjects with self-reported age-related memory complaints.
The subjects did not carry a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment MCI and were screened using the mini-mental state examination MMSE. Subjects randomized to placebo versus control groups did not differ in mean age, percentage of women, mean MMSE scores, or baseline memory performance Table 1.
Potential subjects were excluded who had documented neurological, psychiatric, or major medical conditions, including heart disease, diabetes, and gastrointestinal disease, that might affect cognitive function or interfere with study procedures. We also excluded subjects who routinely ate more than three servings per day of fruits and vegetables or were taking vitamin supplements, any medication, or dietary supplement that interferes with the absorption of polyphenols.
Potential subjects participating in regular vigorous exercises other than ordinary daily walks or who were unwilling to maintain a sedentary lifestyle during the day study were excluded, as were those for whom MRI was contraindicated e.
Seven potential subjects were screened out based on one or more of these exclusion criteria. Demographic and clinical characteristics of subjects at baseline. Subjects were instructed that they would be removed from the study if they failed to follow the prescribed low polyphenol diet during the one-week run-in period based on self-report in-person interview with a study dietitian.
The study was approved by the UCLA Institutional Review Board; all subjects gave informed consent to participate in all procedures and were reconsented for followup evaluations. The investigators were blind to the contributors to this fund, and there was no communication or input from donors or commercial entities at any stage of the study.
General Procedures Following phone screening, volunteers participated in an initial clinical evaluation, which included an explanation of the study procedures, consent, medical screening, MMSE, and routine CBC and chemistry panel.
Prior to the intervention phase, each subject met with a registered dietitian and was instructed on a low polyphenol diet, which required that they restrict their intake of several fruits and vegetables, onions, tea, chocolate, and dried beans, for one week prior to the baseline visit and for the duration for the study.
At baseline, subjects underwent neuroimaging and neurocognitive testing described later. We also acquired blood samples to perform the antioxidant assay and to verify compliance with the protocol.Conflict Theory Essay Examples.
21 total results. An Introduction to Conflict Theory and Functionalism. 1, words. Conflict, Symbolic Interactionist, Functionalist, and Feminist Theories. words. A Study on the Conflict Theory and Activity Theory of the Aged.
staff pick. words. 1 page. Company. Contact; Resources;. Doron Friedman, Anne-Marie Brouwer and Anton Nijholt the ACM Workshop BCIforReal '17 Limassol, Cyprus Proceedings of the ACM Workshop on An Application-oriented Approach to BCI out of the laboratory - BCIforReal '17 An Application-oriented Approach to BCI out of the laboratory ACM Press New York, New York, USA, ().
Abstract. Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly.
Conflict theory also emphasizes inequality among the aged along gender, race/ethnicity, and social class lines. Reflecting these inequalities in the larger society, some . Activity theory is associated with the symbolic-interventionist perspective.
In contrast to the functionalist perspective, this theory focuses on the needs of the elderly themselves, rather than on . Based on the symbolic-interaction approach, activity theory is the idea that a high level of activity increases personal satisfaction in old age.
Because everyone bases social identity on many roles, disengagement is bound to reduce satisfaction and meaning in the lives of older people.