Some other researchers used test results or previous year result since they are studying performance for the specific subject or year Hijazi and Naqvi, and Hake, Many researchers have discussed the different factors that affect the student academic performance in their research. Internal classroom factors includes students competence in English, class schedules, class size, English text books, class test results, learning facilities, homework, environment of the class, complexity of the course material, teachers role in the class, technology used in the class and exams systems. External classroom factors include extracurricular activities, family problems, work and financial, social and other problems.
Two studies were scored as high quality. Methodological quality scores were particularly low for the reliability and validity of the measurement instruments. Based on the results of the best-evidence synthesis, we found evidence of a significant longitudinal positive relationship between physical activity and academic performance.
Because we found only 2 high-quality studies, future high-quality studies are needed to confirm our findings. These studies should thoroughly examine the dose-response relationship between physical activity and academic performance as well as explanatory mechanisms for this relationship.
Physical activity and sports are generally promoted for their positive effect on children's physical health; regular participation in physical activity in childhood is associated with a decreased cardiovascular risk in youth and adulthood.
There are several hypothesized mechanisms for why exercise is beneficial for cognition, including 1 increased blood and oxygen flow to the brain 3 ; 2 increased levels of norepinephrine and endorphins, 45 resulting in a reduction of stress and an improvement of mood 6 ; and 3 increased growth factors that help to create new nerve cells and support synaptic plasticity.
Although schools are able to offer unique opportunities for structured physical activity for children, there is a tendency to cut back physical education lessons.
The increasing pressures to improve academic scores often lead to additional instructional time for subjects such as mathematics and language at the cost of time for being physically active. Given the suggested relationship and the ongoing discussions on the replacement of physical education lessons by academic subjects, we aimed to review the evidence on the longitudinal relationship between these 2 variables.
Two previous reviews 910 have studied the influence of physical activity on academic performance. Trudeau and Shephard 9 present an overview of the literature on the relationship between physical activity in the school setting and several outcome measures, including academic performance.
Based on quasi-experimental data, they report that physical education programs demand a substantial reduction in time allocated for academic tuition. Because the children's academic performance did not change, they conclude that learning efficiency had improved. Furthermore, Trudeau and Shephard report that cross-sectional studies generally indicate a positive association between physical activity and academic achievement.
The review by Taras 10 argues that there may be some acute beneficial effects of physical activity, but the long-term improvement of academic achievement is not well established.
Taras concludes that the acute cognitive benefits of physical activity may adequately compensate for time spent away from academic areas. To summarize, the literature provides inconclusive evidence on the positive longitudinal relationship between physical activity and academic performance.
However, there is a strong general belief that this relationship is present, and research in this area is ongoing. No systematic review with the specific focus on the longitudinal relationship between general physical activity and academic performance has been performed.
Therefore, we present in this article the results of a systematic review of the literature, examining this longitudinal relationship.
We include only prospective data and take into account the methodological quality of the studies. Methods Selection of the literature We performed a computerized search in 4 electronic bibliographic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central, and Sportdiscus from throughusing search terms suitable to each specific database.
The search strategy consisted of 3 elements: The full search strategy can be obtained on request. Inclusion criteria Studies were included if they were prospective studies observational cohorts and intervention studies examining the longitudinal relationship between physical activity and academic performance in young people.
Eligible studies described 1 at least 1 physical activity or physical fitness measurement during childhood or adolescence and 2 at least 1 academic achievement or cognition measure during childhood or adolescence. We included only full-text articles published after in English-language peer-reviewed journals.
Selection process First, a single reviewer L. In case of uncertainty, a second reviewer A. In total, 14 studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria.
Data extraction The first reviewer L. Methodological quality assessment Both reviewers A. Disagreements were discussed and resolved.The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
financial analysis as a tool for predicting failure. Research Significance The importance of this research stems from the importance of financial analysis which can be considered as one of managerial tools that can be used for assessing and controlling the organizational performance.
Literature Review The related literature is very rich in. Author Contributions. Todd Love conceived the project, conducted the literature review, and wrote the main part paper. Christian Laier and Matthias Brand contributed theoretically to the manuscript, wrote parts of the manuscript, and revised the manuscript.
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You can contact her through the Facebook community group with questions. You can say thank you to her with a gift. Please review the FAQs and contact us if you find a problem. Credits: 1 Recommended: 10th, 11th, 12th Prerequisite: This follows Literature and Composition in the progression,.
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