Following a two-month investigation by the New York City medical examiner, a spokeswoman for that office stated that Newman died of salicylate toxicity.
The other drugs must be tested for by different methods or at special locations, resulting in higher prices. Since the drugs abused mostly by teenagers today consist of tobacco, marijuana, alcohol and LSD, a drug abuse intervention program must screen for these chemicals.
Simply doing the industry standard of a SAP is not enough. However, detection of alcohol in the urine is not very reliable since it is eliminated from the body very quickly. A drug screen for alcohol done on Tuesday is not likely to find alcohol that was consumed on Saturday night.
LSD also leaves the body very quickly and is hard to catch. Therefore, schools often do weekend collection to deter the use of alcohol by their athletes.
A Certified Laboratory is a Must There are many laboratories, both local and national, who advertise the ability to do urine drug testing. However, not every lab uses the same methods nor are they all certified by the Government.
Therefore, it is imperative that only Government certified laboratories are used for any student drug testing program. This is the only way you can be assured that your results are accurate.
If your policy will deny the privilege to participate in sports or other co-curricular activities when a positive test is found, your school will be in really hot water if your results are wrong.
Any lab your medical vendor uses must be certified by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration SAMHSA and should have a minimum of ten years of experience in toxicology testing and chair-of-custody procedures. Analysis of Specimens There are two levels of analysis that occur routinely with urine drug abuse screens.
The sample is first subjected to an automated screening test that quickly looks for the presence of specified drugs or their metabolites. The quantitative results, in nanograms per milliliter, are usually reported as well. Thin layer chromatography, as sometimes offered by non-certified labs, is not acceptable.
It is very true that detectable levels of both THC active ingredient of marijuana and nicotine can be found in those individuals having close exposure to the smoke of the burning tobacco or marijuana.
The urine of young children whose parents smoke will have detectable nicotine. For this reason, a series of cutoff levels has been determined and proven scientifically so when a urine drug screen is positive, we know it is from use and not second-hand exposure. When a drug screen is reported as positive, the actual quantitative levels are reported to the Medical Review Officer.
This data is becoming more important in determining recent use verses natural decay of levels in the body. The levels for nicotine are less standardized and often take careful interpretation by the MRO. Specifically they have learned how drug testing is done, what affects the results, specifically medications and foods, and how individuals will try and adulterate the specimens to give false negative results.
Any program of drug testing involving students should have a certified MRO to review all results and make a final certification as to being positive or negative. The MRO must be willing to phone parents when a positive result is found to verify if any medication has been prescribed.
If the MRO receives from the prescribing physician or dentist documentation that a codeine containing medication was prescribed, the MRO will rule the test negative. However, if the parent happened to give the student one of his or her pills, and the student has no legal prescription for the medication, then the MRO must rule this test positive since a controlled drug was given and taken without the order of a licensed physician.
Having an MRO adds significant credibility to any program and shares the burden of liability the school is placed under. Sample policies are available on our web site at www. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Dr. Sample policies are available at www.About Marquette University academics, facts, tuition and costs, community service, campus, the people at Marquette.
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