Go Through These Pros and Cons of Vending Machines in Schools The article presents information on vending machines in schools, their pros and cons and the different aspects of vending machine business. OpinionFront Staff Last Updated: Vending machines installed in schools sell food items like sandwiches, soft drinks, muffins, milk, scones, yogurt, juices, etc.
Administrators completed questions about foods sold in vending machines. For each food intake behavior, a multilevel regression analysis modeled students level 1 nested within schools level 2with the corresponding food sold in vending machines as the main predictor.
Control variables included gender, grade, family affluence and school poverty. Analyses were conducted separately for 6th to 8th and 9th to 10th grades. Results Eighty-three percent of schools schools, 5, students had vending machines which primarily sold foods of minimal nutritional values soft drinks, chips and sweets.
In older grades, there was no significant effect of foods available in vending machines on reported consumption of those foods.
Conclusions Vending machines are widely available in US public schools. The school environment is one important influence that plays a significant role in teaching and modeling eating behaviors to children 2. The three main sources of foods and beverages consumed in schools are federally reimbursable USDA school nutrition programs the National School Lunch Program [NSLP] and the School Breakfast Program [SBP] ; food and beverages sold in a la carte lines, snack bars, school stores, vending machines or school activities e.
There have been recent measures to try to improve the school food environment. In the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of The disadvantages of vending machines in american public schools Lawthe US Congress established a new requirement that all school districts with a federally-funded school meals program develop and implement wellness policies that address nutrition and physical activity by the start of the school year.
However, it is left to the schools to determine specifically what will be addressed in their wellness policies and how they will implement the policies. Although it is well-documented that the majority of US schools sell FMNV 9few studies have examined the association between foods sold in schools and student outcomes.
In addition, having vending machines in schools was negatively associated with fruit consumption. Although these studies provide important data they were each conducted in a single geographic location and included children in a limited age range.
It was hypothesized that foods and beverages available in school vending machines would positively relate to the corresponding food intake in students. The US study was designed to provide a national probability sample of students in grades 6 through 10 with an over-sampling of minorities Hispanics and African-Americans large enough to provide accurate population estimates The sample design is a two-stage cluster of classes stratified by grade within nine US Census regions.
Student surveys were conducted in school classrooms during the school year. Passive or active consent was obtained from parents and students according to school district policy, and participant responses were anonymous.
Student Measures Measures were obtained from standard self-completion questionnaires, which included questions about personal and social resources, health-related behaviors, health outcomes and demographics.
Dietary intake As part of a brief food frequency questionnaire FFQparticipants were asked how many times a week they usually ate fruits, vegetables, sweets chocolates and candysoft drinks, and chips. French fries were asked as a separate question and were not included in the vegetable category.
In that study, test-retest reliability of the FFQ was conducted and consumption frequencies were compared with a hour food behavior checklist FBC and a 7-day food diary. Reliability weighted kappa values between test and retest ranged from 0.
Relative validity, comparison of the FBC with the percentage of respondents who should have consumed the food items on a random day, computed from the FFQ, showed good agreement between the FFQ and the FBC for most items. The Family Affluence Scale FAS was the sum of four items assessing number of family cars, vacations in the past year, home computers, and whether the respondent had his or her own bedroom.
Previous research indicates the scale has good content validity and external reliability and may be a more reliable affluence indicator than parent education or occupation when asked of adolescents 17 ; Scores ranged from four to thirteen, with higher value indicating higher level of family affluence.
School measures Vending machines School administrators were asked if students could purchase snacks or beverages from a school vending machine.
Each vending machine variable was coded as a binary variable yes, no. School poverty index The school poverty index was determined by the percent of students who fell below the federal government poverty guidelines Statistical Analyses A separate model was used for consumption of each food, with the corresponding food provided by school vending machine as the main predictor.
Control variables included in the models were: Due to the hierarchical structure of the data with students level 1 nested within schools level 2multilevel regression models were applied to account for the possible intra-school correlation. To estimate how well the school-level variables i.
A decline in the ICC coefficient indicates that the between-school differences in student dietary behavior have been reduced by the inclusion of the two school-level explanatory variables. Analyses were conducted separately for younger grades 6 to 8 and older grades grades 9 and 10 since previous studies have reported differences in vending machine availability among grades Persons using assistive technology might not be able to fully access information in this file.
For assistance, please send e-mail to: [email protected] Accommodation and the title of the report in the subject line of e-mail. School Vending machine. In the younger grades, availability of food in school vending machines had a significant influence on consumption of both fruits/vegetables (b = , p .
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